cj#439> U.S. Biological Exports to Iraq (fwd)


Richard Moore

Date:         Wed, 17 Jan 1996
Sender:       Activists Mailing List <•••@••.•••>
From:         Larry + Jennie <•••@••.•••>
Organization: InterAccess,Chicagoland's Full Service Internet Provider
Subject:      U.S. Biological War Exports to Iraq

U.S. Bio War Tech to Iraq

Excerpts from:


A Report of Chairman Donald W. Riegle, Jr. and Ranking Member Alfonse M.
D'Amato of the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs with respect to
Export Administration, United States Senate, May 25, 1994

(Pages 36 to 38)

*U.S. Exports of Biological Materials to Iraq*

The Senate Committee on Banking Housing and Urban Affairs has oversight
responsibility for the Export Administration Act.   Pursuant to the
Act, Committee staff contacted the U.S. Department of Commerce and
requested information on the export of biological materials during the
years prior to the Gulf War.  After receiving this information, we
contacted a principal supplier of these materials to determine what, if
any, materials were exported to Iraq which might have contributed to an
offensive or defensive biological warfare program.   Records available
from the supplier for the period from 1985 until the present show that
during this time, pathogenic (meaning "disease producing"),  toxigenic
(meaning "poisonous"), and other biological research materials were
exported to Iraq pursuant to application and licensing by the U.S.
Department of Commerce.  Records prior to 1985 were not available,
according to the supplier.  these exported biological materials were
not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction.  According
to the Department of Defense's own "Report to Congress on the Conduct
of the Persian Gulf War," released in April, 1992:  "By the time of the
invasion of Kuwait, Iraq had developed biological weapons.  It's
advanced and aggressive biological warfare program was the most
advanced in the Arab world... The program probably began late in the
1970's and concentrated on the development of two agents, botulinum
toxin and anthrax bacteria...  Large scale production of these agents
began in 1989 at four facilities near Baghdad.  Delivery means for
biological agents ranged from simple aerial bombs and artillery rockets
to surface-to-surface missiles."

Included in the approved sales are the following biological materials
(which have been considered by various nations for use in war), with
their associated disease symptoms:

*Bacillus Anthracis* anthrax is a disease-producing bacteria identified
by the Department of Defense in "The Conduct of the Persian Gulf War:
Final Report to Congress," as being a major component in the Iraqi
biological warfare program.

Anthrax is an often-fatal infectious disease due to ingestion of
spores.  It begins abruptly with high fever, difficulty in breathing
and chest pain.  The disease eventually results in septicemia (blood
poisoning) and the mortality is high.  Once septicemia is advanced,
antibiotic therapy may prove useless, probably because the exotoxins
remain, despite the death of the bacteria.

*Clostridium Botulinum*  a bacterial source of botulinum toxin, which
causes vomiting, constipation, thirst, general weakness, headache,
fever, dizziness, double vision, dilation of the pupils and paralysis
of the muscles involving swallowing.  It is often fatal.

*Histoplasma Capsulatum* causes a disease superficially resembling
tuberculosis that may cause pneumonia, enlargement of the liver and
spleen, anemia, an influenza-like illness and an acute inflammatory
skin disease marked by tender red nodules, usually on the shins.
Reactivated infection usually involves the lungs, the brain, spinal
membranes, heart, peritoneum, and the adrenals.

*Brucella Melitensis*  a bacteria which can cause chronic fatigue, loss
of appetite, profuse sweating when at rest, pain in joints and muscles,
insomnia, nausea, and damage to major organs.

*Clostridium Perfringens* a highly toxic bacteria which cause gas
gangrene.  The bacteria produce toxins that move along muscle bundles
in the body killing cells and producing necrotic tissue that is then
favorable for further growth of the bacteria itself.  Eventually, these
toxins and bacteria enter the bloodstream and cause a systemic

In addition, several shipments of Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) and genetic
materials, as well as human and bacterial DNA, were shipped directly to
the "Iraq Atomic Energy Commission."

..The American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, Maryland) exported
to agencies of the government of Iraq pursuant to the issuance of an export
licensed by the U.S.  Commerce Department.


Are these bacteria and toxins the causes for Gulf War Syndrome?  Did
our troops become ill from U.S. bombing of Iraqi biological
stockpiles?  Did our troops become sick from the experimental vaccines
given them to ward off the toxins and bacteria that the Department of
Defense knew the U.S. Commerce Department gave Iraq?

Is the reason the Clinton administration and the Department of Defense
continue to deny the existence of Gulf War Syndrome because the United
States government is responsible for the sickness of thousands of our
finest soldiers?

Why did Clinton make a deal with Bush to not investigate this travesty
with the promise that Bush would not criticize Clinton?



        Keep in mind that during much of this period the Iran/Iraq war was
underway, accompanied by close intelligence cooperation between the U.S.
and Iraq -- and intense strategic attention placed on the region.

        There's no way the U.S. wasn't fully aware of the scope and nature
of Iraq's munitions development.  The ongoing sanctions-punishment of the
Iraqi people, based largely on the "illegality" Iraqi weapons, is
hypocritical in the extreme.  I'll post a report in the next couple days
about the sanctions.

        One wonders if there was any reason for encouraging Iraq's
bio-weapons development, other than entrapping them into international
censure.  Was the U.S. hoping they'd use the weapons against Iran?  What
would have been the consequences if they had?



 Posted by Richard K. Moore (•••@••.•••) Wexford, Ireland
 •••@••.•••  | Cyberlib=http://www.internet-eireann.ie/cyberlib
    Materials may be reposted in their entirety for non-commercial use.