cj#952> Dr. R. Lausevic: (II) Ecol. Consequences of NATO Bombing


Richard Moore


From: "viviane lerner" <•••@••.•••>
To: "Richard K Moore" <•••@••.•••>
Subject: Dr. R. Lausevic: (II) Ecol. Consequences of NATO Bombing
Date: Sun, 23 May 1999 11:13:43 -0700
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-----Original Message-----
From: Janet M. Eaton <•••@••.•••>
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Date: Sunday, May 23, 1999 3:15 AM
Subject: [GSN] Dr. R. Lausevic [II] Ecol. Consequences NATO Bombing of

From: "Janet M. Eaton" <•••@••.•••>

Message  2


By  Dr. Radoje Lausevic

II. What was destroyed so far by NATO airstrikes ?

At the moment it is difficult to perceive and evaluate all the
humanitarian, economic, environmental, health and other consequences of the
air strikes against the FR of Yugoslavia. However, it is amply documented
(e.g. M. Chossudovsky, 1999, for full details visit
http://news.flora.org/flora.mai-not/new-10788) that the bombings of
Yugoslavia are not strictly aimed at military and strategic targets as
claimed by NATO. Civilian infrastructure as well as many institutions have
been damaged too.

The bombings have not only been directed against industrial plants,
airports, electricity and telecommunications facilities, railways, bridges
and fuel depots, they have also targeted schools, health clinics, day care
centers, government buildings, churches, museums, monasteries and
historical landmarks. It is estimated that since 24th March NATO has
engaged around 1.000 airplanes of which more than 800 are combat planes
(Glas Javnosti, 5th May, pg. 6). They have flown almost 13,000 attack
sorties, with 700 in one night alone (e.g. early morning of 14th May)
against several hundreds of designated targets till now. They have dropped
over ten thousands tons of explosives and have launched some 3,000 cruise
missiles (FRY Ministry of Foreign Affairs).

The intensity of the bombing using the most advanced military technology is
unprecedented in modern history. It far surpasses the bombing raids of
World War II or the Vietnam War. Documented list of destroyed sites all
around Yugoslavia till 24th April (according FRY Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, for full data visit http://www.mfa.gov.yu/ Yugoslav Daily Survey)

A. Infrastructure

1. General
* Damage to a power supply transmitted in Batajnica (26 March 1999); *
Damage to water supply system in Zemun (5 April 1999); * Damage to a power
supply transmitter in Bogutovac (10 April 1999); * Telephone lines cut off
in Bogutovac (10 April 1999); * Damage to a power station in Pristina (12
April 1999); * Damage to Bistrica hydroelectric power station in Polinje
(13 April 1999); * Damage to electric power transmission lines and
distribution network in the zone under air strikes by NATO enemy aircraft;
* Destruction of power supply transmitters in Belgrade suburbs of Resnik
and Zemun Polje (23 April 1999)Telecommunications

2. Traffic

a) Bridges Till 24th April 20 bridges has been destroyed while 12 has been

1. The Varadin Bridge over the Danube (on 1 April 1999);

2. The "Sloboda" (Freedom) Bridge over the Danube (on 4 April 1999);

3. The "Zezeljov" Bridge in Novi Sad (on 5 April 1999);

4. The bridge over the Ibar river, Biljanovac municipality (on 5 - 13 April

5. The bridge over the Vrbacka river near Jezgrovic (on 5 April 1999);

6. The "Lozno" railway bridge near Usce (on 5 April 1999);

7. The road bridge on the road leading to Brvenik, near Usce (on 5 April 1999);

8. The bridge near Zubin Potok, on the Kosovska Mitrovica - Ribarice road
(on 5 April 1999);

9. The old bridge on the river Rasina near the town of Krusevac (12-13
April 1999);

10. The new bridge on the river Rasina near the town of Krusevac (12-13
April 1999);

11. The Krusevac-Pojate bridge on the river Zapadna Morava, at the village
of Jasika (on 13 April 1999);

12. The railway bridge on the river Lim, between Priboj and Prijepolje,
near hydroelectric power station Bistrica (on 15 April 1999);

13. The bridge on the river Ibar, at the village of Brvenik, linking
Korlace and Raska (15.04.1999.);

14. The bridge between Smederevo and Kovin (16 April 1999);

15. The railway bridge on the river Kostajnica, near Kursumlija (18.04.1999.);

16. The bridge over the regional Kursumlija - Prokuplje road;

17. The bridge over the river Vrapcevska Reka near the village of Ribarice,
from the direction of Kosovska Mitrovica;

18. The bridge over the railway track on the regional road Biljanovac - Mt.

19. The railway bridge near the village of Rudnica in the vicinity of
Raska, on the Kraljevo - Kosovo Polje railway line;

20. The bridge over the Danube along the Beograd-Novi Sad road, near Beska,
Indjija municipality (on 21 April 1999);

b) Railways and railway stations

Till 24th April 16 railways and railway stations have been seriously
damaged, including the Belgrade - Bar rail, due to the destruction of the
railway track near the village of Strbce (Bosnia and Herzegovina, entity of
Republic of Srpska) and destruction of the bridge on the river Lim, between
Priboj and Prijepolje.

c) Roads and transporters

Till 24th April 6 major roads have been disabled for normal operation,
including Belgrade - Zagreb and Belgrade - Nis highway, as well as Ibarska
primary road due to damages to the several bridges.

d) Airports

"Slatina" in Pristina; "Batajnica" and "Surcin" in Belgrade; Nis airport;
"Ponikve" in Uzice; "Golubovac" in Podgorica, "Ladjevci" airport near
Kraljevo; agricultural and sports airfield in Sombor have been disabled for
normal operation till 24th April.

B. Industry
Several thousand industrial facilities have been destroyed or damaged with
the consequence of paralyzing the production of consumer goods. According
to Yugoslav sources, " totally destroying business facilities across the
country, 500,000 workers were left jobless, and 2 million citizens without
any source of income and possibility to ensure minimum living conditions".
Western estimates as to the destruction of property in Yugoslavia stand at
more than US$ 100 billion (M. Chossudovsky, 1999)

1. Factories
More that 50 large factories have been totally destroyed, including
"Zastava" car factory in Kragujevac, "Krusik" holding corporation in
Valjevo, "14 Oktobar" machine factory in Krusevac, as well as "DIN" tobacco
industry in Nis.

2. Refineries and warehouses
Refineries and warehouses storing liquid raw materials and chemicals
intended for the oil and chemical industry, were hit in Pancevo, Novi Sad
and Sombor. Till 24th April many such sites have been destroyed, as
follows: 1. Fuel storage in Lipovica, which caused a great fire in the
Lipovica forest (on 26 March 1999); 2. "Beopetrol" storage in Belgrade (on
4 April 1999); 3. "Beopetrol" storage in Bogutovac (4-24 April 1999); 4.
Fuel storage of the boiler plant in Novi Beograd (on 4 April 1999); 5.
Chemical plant "Prva Iskra" in Baric - destruction of the production line
(19 April 1999); 6. Oil Refinery in Pancevo - totally demolished (4-16
April 1999); 7. Petrochemical industry "DP HIP PETROHEMIJA" in Pancevo -
seriously damaged 14-15 April 1999); 8. Fertilizer plant "DP HIP AZOTARA"
in Pancevo - damaged (14-15 April 1999); 9. "Jugopetrol" installations in
Smederevo (on 4-13 April 1999); 10. Thermo electric power station/boiler
plant in Novi Sad (on 5 April 1999); 11. Oil Refinery in Novi Sad, storage
of bitumen (5 and 6 April 1999); 12. "Jugopetrol" storage in Sombor (on 7
April 1999); 13. Fuel storage "Naftagas promet" which is located 10 km from
Sombor (5 April 1999); 14. Naftagas warehouse between Conoplje and
Kljaicevo (Sombor); 15. "Beopetrol" fuel storage in Pristina (on 7 April
1999); 16. Jugopetrol warehouse in Pristina (on 12 April 1999); 17.
Jugopetrol petrol station in Pristina ( on 13 April 1999); 18. Fuel depot
in Gruza, near Kragujevac;

3. Agriculture

Several agriculture facilities have been also destroyed, e.g.:

        1. PIK "Kopaonik" in Kursumlija;
        2. PIK "Mladost" in Gnjilane;
        3. Agricultural Complex "Malizgan" in Dolac;
        4. Agricultural Complex "Djuro Strugar" in Kula;

        5. Agricultural and food-processing plant and a cow-breeding
        farm with 220 milk cows "Pester", in Sjenica, has been

        6. In forest fires caused by NATO cruise missiles and bombs
        over 250 hectares of forests have been burned down;

        7. Several thousand hectares of fertile land, many rivers,
        lakes and underground waters have been polluted due to the
        spillage of petrochemical substances, oil spills and slicks;

C. Urban and rural residential areas

Villages with no visible military or strategic structures have been also
bombed, as well as residential areas in all major cities all around
Yugoslavia. That events are usually described as "collateral damage". The
downtown area of Pristina (which includes apartment buildings and private
dwellings) has been destroyed. Central-downtown Belgrade including
government buildings-- have been hit several times and there are massive
flames emanating from the destruction. Residential areas in towns of Novi
Sad, Pancevo, Nis, Cuprija, Aleksinac, Kragujevac, Valjevo, Surdulica,
Kraljevo, Jagodina were hit, too.

D. Pre-school Institutions, Schools and Universities

Over three hundred facilities built for the education of all ages were
damaged or destroyed. Hard hit are university center in Nis  (Machine
Engineering,  Civil Engineering, Electronical, Technical,  Law  and
Economics  faculties),  in  Pristina (Agricultural and Machine Engineering
faculty) and Novi Sad (Faculty of Philosophy) and university center in
Belgrade. It causes a stop to the education of close to one million pupils
and students in the FR of Yugoslavia.

E. Cultural and Historical monuments and Museums

Cultural and historical monuments have been hit directly or as so-called
"collateral damage". The list comprises: 1. Monastery Gracanica from 14th
century (24 March - 6 April 1999); 2. Monastery Rakovica from 17th century
(29 March 1999); 3. Patriarchate of Pec (1 April 1999); 4. Church in
Jelasnica near Surdulica (4 April 1999); 5. Monastery of the Church of St.
Juraj (built in 1714) in Petrovaradin (1 April 1999); 6. Monastery of Holy
Mother (12th century) at the estuary of the Kosanica in the Toplica -
territory of municipality of Kursumlija (4 April 1999); 7. Monastery of St.
Nicholas (12th century) in the territory of the municipality of Kursumlija
(4 April 1999); 8. Monastery of St. Archangel Gabriel in Zemun (5 April
1999); 9. Roman Catholic Church St. Antonio in Djakovica (29 March 1999);
10. Orthodox cemetery in Gnjilane (30 March 1999); 11. Monuments destroyed
in Bogutovac (8 April 1999); 12. "Kadinjaca" memorial complex (8 April
1999); 13. Vojlovica monastery near Pancevo (12 April 1999); 14. Hopovo
monastery, iconostasis damaged (12 April 1999); 15. Orthodox Christian
cemetery in Pristina (12 April 1999); 16. Monastery church St, Archangel
Michael in Rakovica (16 April 1999); 17. Orthodox church St. Marco in
Belgrade (24 April 1999); 19. Russian Orthodox church Holly Trinity in
Belgrade (24 April 1999); 20. Severe damage to the roof structure of the
Fortress of Petrovaradin (1 April 1999); 21. Heavy damage to "Tabacki
bridge", four centuries old, in Djakovica (5 April 1999); 22. Substantial
damage to the building in Stara Carsija (Old street) in Djakovica (5 April
1999); 23. Destroyed archives housed in one of the Government buildings in
Belgrade (3 April 1999); 24. Memorial complex in Gucevo (Loznica); 25.
Memorial complex "Sumarice" in Kragujevac; 26. Vojvodina Museum in Novi
Sad; 27. Old Military Barracks in Kragujevac - under the protection of the
state (16 April 1999); 28. Memorial complex Crveni Krst in Nis (21 April

Ass. Prof. Dr. Radoje Lausevic
Serbian Ecological Society
Univ. Belgrade, Fac. Biol.
Inst. Bot. & Bot. Garden "Jevremovac"
Takovska 43, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Tel: +381 11 767-988
Fax: +381 11 769-903

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